Marriage evolution because of socio-economic conditions.


– Fatima El Marnissi, feminist.

– Helen Fesher, anthropologist.

As long as we are discussing the marriage topic in Moroccan territory, we are obliged to talk about the Feminist, Fatima el Marnissi. She tells within an article on online press << El Hiwar El Motamidin>> titled “The influence of Islamic Marriage on Pre-Islam Society” that the man was the centre and base of social family. Women in Pre-Islam society were normally buried by their parents in this way girls of aristocratic families were excluded. Islam was genius according to Fatima El Marnissi in dealing with Marriage or in better expression to deal with slavery. 
و يدعم هذه النظرية ( الحفاظ على النساء) أن القرآن الكريم قد شرّع التعدّد بعد هزيمة أحد التي لقي فيها الكثير من المسلمين حتفهم. و بالإضافة  إلى ذلك فقد هدف الرسول(ص) إلى إعادة دمج النساء في وحدات تضامن جديدة بعد أن جردن من حماية القبيلة لهن، حتى لا يبحثن عن الحماية في علاقات جنسية مؤقتة يعتبرها الإسلام زناً، وهنا تكمن عبقرية الإسلام. (Fatima El Marnissi)
Quran support this theory (Protecting women) by permitting polygamy after the OHUD defeat because of large numbers of murders in Muslims side.  Besides, the prophet tends to integrate women into new forms of solidarity after they were bare of tribe protection in order not to practice prostitution. In this way Islam considered clever. (My translation)
So Islam got into polygamy to allow Man the breadwinner of the family at the time to marry more than one woman up to four girls. Islam has given criteria to get involved to this kind of marriage such as the financial and moral capacity; moreover, man is allowed to marry one girl according to his wish, while the three others are marginalized need protection such as widowed, divorced or old women. All these procedures are to provide women an alternative instead of practicing adultery.
 William Montgomery Watt continues in same point and states that Islam shed light on men authority at home the thing which was not known in pre-Islam society according to Hadith of the prophet “والرجل راع على أهله وهو مسؤول”, “Man is shepherd on his family…and he is responsible”. This means man in Islam take the responsibility of the family. And in the case of multi wives, he has to make to each wife her own house.
Later on man misuse this authority to limit women freedom. Man works on to deprive, if so speak, woman of their rights such as work, transportation and heritage. According to Fatima ElMarnissi, we become talking about second pre-Islam society where woman cannot exercise their life freely.
El Marnissi believes this situation endure till the modern time when educated woman starts to take back by force her right of work and transportation.
On other side of the earth European people use to marry just one woman whereas polygamy is forbidden morally. Yet, there existed patterns of intangible polygamy, if so speak, spread in European societies. It was known on the name of mistress or “La maitresse”. The difference is not there. The difference is in the way Europeans and Americans perceive the “affair” thing. It’s always hard when considering attitudes in patriarchal society. Man considered the wife a respected entity  to whom he provides legitimate concerns, on contrary, he don’t feel enjoyment with her in the way he takes mistress and concubines to feel the freedom of couple. 
 Helen Fisher, composes that out of the 853 societies on record just sixteen for every penny recommend monogamy, in which a man is allowed just a single wife at any given moment. Furthermore, it takes after that it is just in that sixteen percent of societies that the idea of the mistress can bode well by any stretch of the imagination. Polygamous social orders may offer ascent to different evaluations of co-wives, yet not to mistress — however women attempting to live as special ladies, or as wives of men who have paramours, may gain from the principles of authority polygamists: 

The Mormon system of polygamy certainly produced traumas of jealousy in some women and most women found the whole idea, when Joseph Smith originally introduced it, deeply shocking. However, some women did find it liberating … The sheer mechanics of the large household where there were several wives made the expression of romantic love impractical, but even more simply the `harem’ completely destroyed the idea that everybody had One True Love, which is the essence of the mythology of romantic love … The Mormon women were also advised not to allow themselves to become emotionally dependent upon their husbands, because otherwise the polygamous life was impossible. Even though Salt Lake City was clearly a male world and the men got the best of the bargain (women were not allowed to have several husbands) it did prove to be liberating for many of the Mormon plural wives. Certainly the fact that Utah was easily the first state in America to give women the vote and that there were more professional women in Utah at the end of the 19th century than almost any other state says a good deal for the confidence and the autonomy that Mormonism gave to its women.[1]

After viewing two different points of view, one of the occidental communities through Helen Fisher, anthropologist in United States of American who has done her research in numerous countries – cultures. On other part Fatima El Marnissi, Moroccan feminist who defend woman right in Moroccan state. I tend to provide definitions, rituals and history of marriage in Morocco.
Marriage evolution because of socio-economic conditions.

[1] H.E. Fisher journal of NIH Research , appril 1994, vol 5

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